Mechanical energy (ENG) required by a time-varying elastance model of the ventricle was compared with oxygen consumption per beat (VO2) of the canine left ventricle contracting under a variety of loading conditions. ENG needed for this model to increase its elastance during systole is shown to be equal to the sum of the potential energy built in the elastance during systole plus the external mechanical stroke work. This ENG is equivalent to the area (PVA) bounded by the end-systolic and end-diastolic P-V curves and the systolic limb of the P-V loop trajectory in the P-V plane. There was a high correlation (r = 0.89) between VO2s documented in the literature and PVAs assessed by the author from the accompanying P-V data from both isovolumic and ejecting contractions in 11 hearts. A linear regression analysis yielded an empirical equation: VO2 (ml O2/beat) = a . PVA (mmHg . ml/beat) + b, where a = 1.37 X 10(-5) and b = 0.027, which can be used to predict VO2 from PVA. A preliminary experimental study in my laboratory confirmed the validity of this empirical equation.
Swain, L., et al. (2020). New approaches to limit myocardial infarct size and reduce progression to heart failure after STEMI are needed. Mechanically reducing left ventricular (LV) workload (LV unloading) before coronary reperfusion is emerging as a potential approach to reduce infarct size.
Daniel Burkhoff, Gabriel Sayer, Darshan Doshi, Nir Uriel
An increasing number of devices can provide mechanical circulatory support (MCS) to patients with acute hemodynamic compromise and chronic end-stage heart failure. These devices work by different pumping mechanisms, have various ﬂow capacities,are inserted by different techniques,and have different sites from which blood is with drawn and returned to the body. These factors result in different primary hemodynamic effects and secondary responses of the body. However, these are not generally taken into account when choosing a device for a particular patient or while managing a patient undergoing MCS. In this review, we discuss fundamental principles of cardiac, vascular, and pump mechanics and illustrate how they provide a broad foundation for understanding the complex interactions between the heart, vasculature, and device, and how they may help guide future research to improve patient outcomes. (J Am Coll Cardiol 2015;66:2663–74) © 2015 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.